The Rothman® Index (RI)

Peer-reviewed articles and abstracts

RI Development and Validation

Rothman MJ, Rothman SI, Beals J 4th. Development and validation of a continuous measure of patient condition using the Electronic Medical Record. J Biomed Inform. 2013 Oct;46(5):837-48.

Rothman MJ, Tepas JJ 3rd, Nowalk AJ, Levin JE, Rimar JM, Marchetti A, Hsiao AL. Development and validation of a continuously age-adjusted measure of patient condition for hospitalized children using the electronic medical record. J Biomed Inform. 2017 Feb;66:180-193.

Predict and Reduce Mortality

Moguillansky D, Sharaf OM, Jin P, Samra R, Bryan J, Moguillansky NI, Lascano J, Kattan JN. Evaluation of Clinical Predictors for Major Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19: The Potential Role of the Rothman Index. Cureus. 2022 Sep 4;14(9):e28769.

Goellner Y, Tipton E, Verzino T, Weigand L. Improving care quality through nurse-to-nurse consults and early warning system technology. Nurs Manage. 2022 Jan 1;53(1):28-33.

Beals J 4th, Barnes JJ, Durand DJ, Rimar JM, Donohue TJ, Hoq SM, Belk KW, Amin AN, Rothman MJ. Stratifying Deterioration Risk by Acuity at Admission Offers Triage Insights for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients. Crit Care Explor. 2021 Apr 5;3(4):e0400.

Finlay GD, Rothman MJ, Smith RA. Measuring the modified early warning score and the Rothman index: advantages of utilizing the electronic medical record in an early warning system. J Hosp Med. 2014 Feb;9(2):116-9.

Predict and Reduce Rapid Response Calls and Care Escalations

Ahmad R, Erb C. Rothman Index as a Tool to Guide Triaging to a Higher Level of Care After Rapid Response Team Activation. CHEST Annual Meeting, Oct 17-20, 2021.

Danesh V, Neff D, Jones TL, Aroian K, Unruh L, Andrews D, Guerrier L, Venus SJ, Jimenez E. Can proactive rapid response team rounding improve surveillance and reduce unplanned escalations in care? A controlled before and after study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2019 Mar;91:128-133.

Wengerter BC, Pei KY, Asuzu D, Davis KA. Rothman Index variability predicts clinical deterioration and rapid response activation. Am J Surg. 2018 Jan;215(1):37-41.

Grimshaw KS, Fan K, Mullins A, Parkosewich J. Using Quality Improvement Methods to Understand Incidence, Timing, and Factors Associated With Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Transfers of Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease. Prog Transplant. 2019 Dec;29(4):361-363.

Predict Returns to Intensive Care Unit

Gotur DB, Masud F, Paranilam J, Zimmerman JL. Analysis of Rothman Index Data to Predict Postdischarge Adverse Events in a Medical Intensive Care Unit. J Intensive Care Med. 2020 Jun;35(6):606-610.

Alarhayem AQ, Muir MT, Jenkins DJ, Pruitt BA, Eastridge BJ, Purohit MP, Cestero RF. Application of electronic medical record-derived analytics in critical care: Rothman Index predicts mortality and readmissions in surgical intensive care unit patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Apr;86(4):635-641.

Piper GL, Kaplan LJ, Maung AA, Lui FY, Barre K, Davis KA. Using the Rothman index to predict early unplanned surgical intensive care unit readmissions. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Jul;77(1):78-82.

Predict and Reduce Readmissions

Peterson KJ, O’Donnell CM, Eastwood DC, Szabo A, Hu KY, Ridolfi TJ, Ludwig KA, Peterson CY. Evaluation of the Rothman Index in Predicting Readmission after Colorectal Resection. Am J Med Qual. 2023 Nov 1;38(6):287-293. doi: 10.1097/JMQ.0000000000000149. 2023 Nov 1. PMID: 37908031.

Wang L, Li G, Ezeana CF, Ogunti R, Puppala M, He T, Yu X, Wong SSY, Yin Z, Roberts AW, Nezamabadi A, Xu P, Frost A, Jackson RE, Wong STC. An AI-driven clinical care pathway to reduce 30-day readmission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Sci Rep. 2022 Nov 30;12(1):20633.

McLynn RP, Ondeck NT, Cui JJ, Swanson DR, Shultz BN, Bovonratwet P, Grauer JN. The Rothman Index as a predictor of postdischarge adverse events after elective spine surgery. Spine J. 2018 Jul;18(7):1149-1156.

Banoff KM, Milner K, Rimar J, Greer AE, Canavan M. Assessment of a Novel Tool for Identifying Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure at Risk for 30-Day Readmission, High Cost, and Longer Length of Stay. Nurs Econ. 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):172-81.

Bradley EH, Yakusheva O, Horwitz LI, Sipsma H, Fletcher J. Identifying patients at increased risk for unplanned readmission. Med Care. 2013 Sep;51(9):761-6.

Identify Patients who May Benefit from Palliative Care Consults

Im JH, Chow R, Novosel M, Xiang J, Strait M, Rao V, Kapo J, Zimmermann C, Prsic E. Association of palliative care and hospital outcomes among solid tumour oncology inpatients. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2023 Feb 27:spcare-2023-004207.

Kozhevnikov D, Loho H, Prestia B. Factors Associated with Inpatient Hospice Utilization among Hospitalized Decedents with Comfort Measures Only Status. J Palliat Med. 2023 Jan 30. 3
Chan AS, Rout A, ‘Adamo CRD, Lev I, Yu A, Miller K. Palliative Referrals in Advanced Cancer Patients: Utilizing the Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool and Rothman Index. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2022 Feb;39(2):164-168.

Henderson, RG, McCloskey B, Walter, E; Rimar, J, Bai, M, Moritz, ED. Using the Rothman Index and Length of Stay as a Trigger for Palliative Care in the Medical Intensive Care Unit and Step-Down Units. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing 19(3):p 232-237, June 2017.